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On Participle Suffix -GXlX ~ -KXlX in Khalaj
Known for its preservation of many archaic language features, Khalaj, continues the participle suffix -(X)GlI which was used in historical periods in -GXlX ~ -KXlX forms. The -GXlX ~ -KXlX suffix in Khalaj is the result of the replacement of X vowels and G consonants in the -(X)GlI suffix. In Khalaj, -GXlX ~ -KXlX suffix is usually composed of adjective and temporary noun words. Participles formed with -GXlX ~ -KXlX suffix can be meaningful in the past, present, aorist or under certain circumstances in future. Temporary nouns formed by the suffix of -GXlX ~ -KXlX, can be given endings. Furthermore, such words may act as predicates with the suffix to the third person copula. Permanent nouns made with the -GXlX ~ -KXlX suffix are also common. Another feature of -GXlX ~ -KXlX attached participle in Khalaj that is used in “-DXK” attached participle function. This feature in the -GXlX ~ -KXlX suffix was later developed in Khalaj. Such uses must have been passed to Khalaj, by the dialects of (South) Azerbaijani in Iran or by the Oghuz dialects living in the same regions as the Khalaj Turks in Central Iran. In these uses of -GXlX ~ -KXlX, the groups made in -(y)An attached participles in the said dialects are modeled. In this context, the use of participle suffix -(y)An with “-DXK” function is characteristic in dialects of (South) Azerbaijani and Oghuz dialects in Central Iran.

Turkic dialects of Iran, Khalaj, participle suffix -GXlX ~ -KXlX, language contacts.

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